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These video resources were recorded on 2016-05-10 by the National Centre for Research Methods (NCRM) at the University of Southampton.

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Related datasets and other links

Recommended readings

  • DE MONTJOYE, Y. A., RADAELLI, L., & SINGH, V. K. (2015) Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata; Science, 347(6221): 536-539, available at: [accessed 30/5/16].
  • DOBRA, A. & FIENBERG, S. E. (2000) Bounds for cell entries in contingency tables given marginal totals and decomposable graphs; in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(22): 11885-11892, available at: [accessed 30/5/16].
  • DOBRA, A. & FIENBERG, S. E. (2001) Bounds for cell entries in contingency tables induced by fixed marginal totals; Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 18(4): 363-371, available at: [accessed 30/5/16].
  • DOMINGO-FERRER, J, SANCHEZ, D., & SORIA-COMAS, J. (2016) Database Anonymization: Privacy Models, Data Utility, and Microaggregation-based Inter-model Connections; Synthesis Lectures on Information Security, Privacy, & Trust 15: Morgan & Claypool, DOI: 10.2200/S00690ED1V01Y201512SPT015. DOYLE, P., LANE, J. I., THEEUWES, J. M. & ZAYATZ, L. V. (eds.) (2001) Confidentiality, Disclosure, and Data Access: Theory and Practical Applications for Statistical Agencies. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 135-166.
  • DUNCAN, G. T., FIENBERG, S. E., KRISHNAN, R., PADMAN, R., & ROEHRIG, S. F. (2001) Disclosure limitation methods and information loss for tabular data; In Doyle, P., Lane, J. I., Theeuwes, J. M., & Zayatz, L. V. (eds.) Confidentiality, Disclosure, and Data Access: Theory and Practical Applications for Statistical Agencies. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 135-166.
  • DUNCAN, G. T., ELLIOT, M. J., & SALAZAR-GONZALEZ, J. J. (2011) Statistical Confidentiality. New York: Springer.
  • ELAMIR, E.A. & SKINNER, C. (2006) Record level measures of disclosure risk for survey microdata; Journal of Official Statistics, 22(3): 525, available at: [accessed 30/5/16].
  • EL EMAM, K. (2013) Guide to the De-Identification of Personal Health Information. Boca Raton, Florida: Auerbach Publications (CRC Press).
  • EL EMAM, K. (ed.) (2013) Risky Business: Sharing Health Data while Protecting Privacy. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford Publishing.
  • EL EMAM, K. & ARBUCKLE L. (2014) Anonymizing Health Data 2nd Edition. Sebastapol, California: O'Reilly media.
  • ELLIOT, M. J. (1996) Attacks on Confidentiality Using the Samples of Anonymised Records; In Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Statistical Confidentiality. Bled, Slovenia, October 1996. Ljubljana: Statistics Slovenia-Eurostat.
  • ELLIOT, M. J. (2000) DIS: A new approach to the measurement of statistical disclosure risk; Risk Management, 2: 39-48, DOI:10.1057/palgrave.rm.8240067. %ELLIOT, M. J. (2001) Advances in data intrusion simulation: A vision for the future of data release; Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 18(4): 383-391.
  • ELLIOT, M. J. & DALE, A. (1999) Scenarios of Attack: The Data Intruder's Perspective on Statistical Disclosure Risk; Netherlands Official Statistics, Spring 1999: 6-10, available at: [accessed 30/5/16]. %ELLIOT, M. J., DIBBEN, C., GOWANS, H., MACKEY, E., LIGHTFOOT, D., O'HARA, K., & PURDAM, K. (2015) Functional Anonymisation: The crucial role of the data environment in determining the classification of data as (non-) personal; CMIST work paper 2015-2 available at [accessed 27/5/2016].
  • ELLIOT, M. J., MACKEY, E., O'SHEA S., TUDOR, C. & SPICER, K. (2016) Open Data or End User License: A Penetration Test; Journal of Official Statistics, 32(2): 329-348, DOI: 10.1515/JOS-2016-0019.
  • FIENBERG, S.E. (2005) Confidentiality and Disclosure Limitation; In Kempf-Leonard K. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Social Measurement volume 3. New York: Elsiever.
  • HUNDEPOOL, A., DOMINGO-FERRER, J., FRANCONI, L., GIESSING, S., NORDHOLT, E. S., SPICER, K. & DE WOLF, P. P. (2012) Statistical Disclosure Control. London: John Wiley & Sons.
  • LANE, J., STODDEN, V., BENDER, S. & NISSENBAUM, H. (Eds.) (2014) Privacy, Big Data, and the Public Good. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MACKEY, E. & ELLIOT, M. J. (2013) Understanding the Data Environment; XRDS: Crossroads, 20 (1): 37-39.
  • NISSENBAUM, H. (2004) Privacy as contextual integrity; Washington Law Review, 79 (119): 101-139, available at: [accessed 30/5/2016].
  • NISSENBAUM, H. (2010) Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • SAMARATI, P. (2001) Protecting respondents' identities in microdata release; IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 13(6): 1010-1027.
  • SAMARATI, P. & SWEENEY, L. (1998) Protecting privacy when disclosing information: k-anonymity and its enforcement through generalization and suppression. Washington: SRI International, available at: [accessed 28/5/16].
  • SANCHEZ, D., MARTINEZ, S. & DOMINGO-FERRER, J. (2016) Comment on 'Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata'; Science 351 (6279): 1274.
  • SKINNER, C. J. & ELLIOT, M. J. (2002) A measure of disclosure risk for microdata; Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: series B (statistical methodology), 64(4): 855-867, DOI: 10.1111/1467-9868.00365.
  • SMITH, D. & ELLIOT, M. (2008) A Measure of Disclosure Risk for Tables of Counts; Transactions on Data Privacy, 1(1): 34-52, available at: [accessed 30/5/16].
  • WILLENBORG, L. & DE WAAL, T. (2001) Elements of Disclosure Control. Springer: New York.


Related research areas (available items)


References & recommended readings



All relevant references can be listed here along with browsable links to other existing resources in NCRM

Allison, P. D. ( 2005). Fixed Effects Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Using SAS. Cary, NC.:SAS Institute Inc.

Bollen, K. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley.

Bailey, C. (2001) Geographers doing household research: Intrusive research and moral accountability, Area, 33, 1, 107-109.

Bakardjieva, M. and Feenberg, A. (2001) Involving the virtual subject, Ethics and Information Technology, 2, 4, 233-240.

Barnes, S. B. (2004) Issues of attribution and identification in online social research, in Johns, M. D., Chen, S. S. and Hall, G. J. (Eds.) (2004) Online Social Research: Methods, Issues, and Ethics. New York. Peter Lang. pp. 203-222.


Recommended readings

Recommended readings etc. (which uathor may deem appropriate (could be event, NCRM resource, book chapter etc.

Bulloch, SarahUsing Structural Equation Modelling to re-examine the association between gender and social trust: the search for measurement equivalence. In: NCRM Research Methods Festival 2008, 30th June - 3rd July 2008, St Catherine's College, Oxford.Download from

Mehta, P. & Neale, M. (2005) People are variables too: Multilevel structural equations modeling. Psychological Methods, 10, 259-284. Download from

Preacher, K., Zyphur, M. & Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15, 209-233. Download from

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