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  Download the transcript file Download transcript Introduction to automated zone design.pdf [ 433 Views ]


  Download the transcript file Download transcript Principles of automated zone design methods.pdf [ 120 Views ]

  Download the transcript file Download transcript Introduction to AZTool software.pdf [ 205 Views ]


  Download the transcript file Download transcript Examples of automated zone design in practice.pdf [ 120 Views ]


Here are the slides in Microsoft Powerpoint format. You may want to explore the slides or download the entire presentation by clicking the link below

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These video resources were recorded on 2016-04-25 by the National Centre for Research Methods (NCRM) at the University of Southampton.

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Related datasets and other links

Recommended readings

  • AZTool software with guidance notes and download link
  • Cockings, S., Harfoot, A., Martin, D. and Hornby, D. (2011) Maintaining existing zoning systems using automated zone design techniques: methods for creating the 2011 Census output geographies for England and Wales. Environment and Planning A 43, 2399-2418
  • Cockings, S., Harfoot, A., Martin, D. and Hornby, D. (2013) Getting the foundations right: spatial building blocks for official population statistics. Environment and Planning A A 45, 1403-1420
  • Cockings, S. and? Martin, D.? (2005) Zone design for environment and health studies using pre-aggregated data.? Social Science and Medicine? 60, 2729-2742
  • Openshaw, S. (1977) A geographical solution to scale and aggregation problems in region-building, partitioning and spatial modelling. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS 2, 459-72
  • Martin, D. (1998) Optimizing census geography: the separation of collection and output geographies. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 12, 673-685
  • Martin, D. (2002) Geography for the 2001 Census in England and Wales. Population Trends 108, 7-15
  • Martin, D., Cockings, S. and Harfoot, A. (2013) Development of a geographical framework for census workplace data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176, 585-602> > Openshaw, S. (1984) The modifiable areal unit problem. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography No. 38 Geo Books, Norwich


Related research areas (available items)


References & recommended readings



All relevant references can be listed here along with browsable links to other existing resources in NCRM

Allison, P. D. ( 2005). Fixed Effects Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Using SAS. Cary, NC.:SAS Institute Inc.

Bollen, K. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley.

Bailey, C. (2001) Geographers doing household research: Intrusive research and moral accountability, Area, 33, 1, 107-109.

Bakardjieva, M. and Feenberg, A. (2001) Involving the virtual subject, Ethics and Information Technology, 2, 4, 233-240.

Barnes, S. B. (2004) Issues of attribution and identification in online social research, in Johns, M. D., Chen, S. S. and Hall, G. J. (Eds.) (2004) Online Social Research: Methods, Issues, and Ethics. New York. Peter Lang. pp. 203-222.


Recommended readings

Recommended readings etc. (which uathor may deem appropriate (could be event, NCRM resource, book chapter etc.

Bulloch, SarahUsing Structural Equation Modelling to re-examine the association between gender and social trust: the search for measurement equivalence. In: NCRM Research Methods Festival 2008, 30th June - 3rd July 2008, St Catherine's College, Oxford.Download from

Mehta, P. & Neale, M. (2005) People are variables too: Multilevel structural equations modeling. Psychological Methods, 10, 259-284. Download from

Preacher, K., Zyphur, M. & Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15, 209-233. Download from

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